The overall aim of the AERO-UA project was to stimulate aviation research collaboration between the EU and Ukraine through strategic and targeted support. AERO-UA was focused solely on Ukraine, because the country has a huge aerospace potential but a low level of aviation research collaboration with the EU. Ukraine’s aerospace sector spans the full spectrum of systems and components development and production with OEMs, Tier 1 and 2 suppliers, aeroengine manufacturers, control systems manufacturers, R&D institutions, aeronautic universities, and SMEs. This is also reflected in the sector’s important contribution to the country’s economy (e.g. aircraft production of €1,9 billion in 2011). Ukrainian aerospace organisations possess unique know-how that can help Europe address the challenges identified in the ACARE SRIA / Flightpath 2050 Report. Furthermore, following the signing of the Agreement for the Association of Ukraine to Horizon 2020 in March 2015, Ukrainian organisations are eligible to participate in Clean Sky 2 and H2020 Transport on the same funding terms as those from EU member states. Equally, genuine commercial opportunities exist for European aviation organisations to help modernise Ukraine’s aerospace sector.